Green House Gas Emission Studies
Greenhouse Gas Overview
Gases that trap heat in the atmosphere are often called greenhouse gases. This section of the EPA Climate Change
Site provides information and data on emissions of greenhouse gases to Earth’s atmosphere, and also the removal of
greenhouse gases from the atmosphere. For more information on the science of climate change, please visit EPA's
climate change science home page.
Some greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide occur naturally and are emitted to the atmosphere through natural
processes and human activities. Other greenhouse gases (e.g., fluorinated gases) are created and emitted solely
through human activities. The principal greenhouse gases that enter the atmosphere because of human activities
Carbon Dioxide (CO2): Carbon dioxide enters the atmosphere through the burning of fossil fuels (oil, natural gas, and
coal), solid waste, trees and wood products, and also as a result of other chemical reactions (e.g., manufacture of
cement). Carbon dioxide is also removed from the atmosphere (or “sequestered”) when it is absorbed by plants as
part of the biological carbon cycle.
Methane (CH4): Methane is emitted during the production and transport of coal, natural gas, and oil. Methane
emissions also result from livestock and other agricultural practices and by the decay of organic waste in municipal
solid waste landfills.
Nitrous Oxide (N2O): Nitrous oxide is emitted during agricultural and industrial activities, as well as during
combustion of fossil fuels and solid waste.
Fluorinated Gases: Hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons, and sulfur hexafluoride are synthetic, powerful
greenhouse gases that are emitted from a variety of industrial processes. Fluorinated gases are sometimes used as
substitutes for ozone-depleting substances (i.e., CFCs, HCFCs, and halons). These gases are typically emitted in
smaller quantities, but because they are potent greenhouse gases, they are sometimes referred to as High Global
Warming Potential gases (“High GWP gases”).
Base on the gas utilization plan or an existing field or new development, Toplead engineers perform detailed studies
1. identification of all green gas emission sources/points,
2. quantity (profile)
3. quality of emissions
4. Emission intensity
Toplead proposes changes in design, practices or operations to reduce emissions where possible and provides
specific studies on increasing gas utilization while cutting down on gas flaring.